Category Archives: HOW TO GET GREEN

Naked Man Orchid – Orchis Italica

 

Orchis italica is a species of orchid native to the Mediterranean. It is also known as thenaked man orchid[1] or Italian orchid. It prefers partial shade and low nutrient soil. Source: Wikipedia

Solar Power in INDIA

Charanka-Solar-Park-panorama view

India is densely populated and has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. India is already a leader in wind power generation. In the solar energy sector, some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km2 area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 GW to 2,100 GW. Also India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has released the JNNSM Phase 2 Draft Policy,[1] by which the Government aims to install 10GW of Solar Power and of this 10 GW target, 4 GW would fall under the central scheme and the remaining 6 GW under various State specific schemes.

In July 2009, India unveiled a US$19 billion plan to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020. Under the plan, the use of solar-powered equipment and applications would be made compulsory in all government buildings, as well as hospitals and hotels. On 18 November 2009, it was reported that India was ready to launch its National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, with plans to generate 1,000 MW of power by 2013. From August 2011 to July 2012, India went from 2.5 MW of grid connected photovoltaics to over 1,000 MW.

According to a 2011 report by BRIDGE TO INDIA and GTM Research, India is facing a perfect storm of factors that will drive solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption at a “furious pace over the next five years and beyond”. The falling prices of PV panels, mostly from China but also from the U.S., has coincided with the growing cost of grid power in India. Government support and ample solar resources have also helped to increase solar adoption, but perhaps the biggest factor has been need. India, “as a growing economy with a surging middle class, is now facing a severe electricity deficit that often runs between 10 and 13 percent of daily need”.

 

CURRENT STATUS

With about 300 clear, sunny days in a year, India’s theoretical solar power reception, on only its land area, is about 5000 Petawatt-hours per year (PWh/yr) (i.e. 5000 trillion kWh/yr or about 600 TW). The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 1500–2000 sunshine hours per year (depending upon location), which is far more than current total energy consumption. For example, assuming the efficiency of PV modules were as low as 10%, this would still be a thousand times greater than the domestic electricity demand projected for 2015.

Solar_Resource_Map_of_India

 

INSTALLED CAPACITY

The amount of solar energy produced in India in 2007 was less than 1% of the total energy demand. The grid-interactive solar power as of December 2010 was merely 10 MW. Government-funded solar energy in India only accounted for approximately 6.4 MW-yr of power as of 2005. However, India is ranked number one in terms of solar energy production per watt installed, with an insolation of 1,700 to 1,900 kilowatt hours per kilowatt peak (kWh/KWp). 25.1 MW was added in 2010 and 468.3 MW in 2011. By the end of March 2013 the installed grid connected photovoltaics had increased to 1686.44 MW,and India expects to install an additional 10,000 MW by 2017, and a total of 20,000 MW by 2022.

Progress under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission

Sl. No.

State / UT

Capacity (MW)

1.

Andhra Pradesh

21.8

2.

Chhattisgarh

4.0

3.

Delhi

2.5

4.

Gujarat

654.8

5.

Haryana

7.8

6.

Jharkhand

4.0

7.

Karnataka

9.0

8.

Madhya Pradesh

2.0

9.

Maharashtra

20.0

10.

Odisha

13.0

11.

Punjab

9.0

12.

Rajasthan

197.5

13.

Tamil Nadu

15.0

14.

Uttar Pradesh

12.0

15.

Uttarakhand

5.0

16.

West Bengal

2.0

TOTAL

979.4

KENAF – (a.k.a) – Mesta or Ambari

KENAF

Kenaf, (species Hibiscus cannabinus), fast-growing plant of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae) and its fibre, one of the bast fibre group. It is used mainly as a jute substitute. The plant grows wild in Africa, where the fibre is sometimes known as Guinea hemp, and has been cultivated on the Indian subcontinent, where it is usually known as mesta, or ambari, since prehistoric times.

Kenaf was unknown in the West until late in the 18th century, when cordage and sacking made from the fibre were brought to Europe. It remained one of the less important bagging materials until World War II, when shortages of jute and other bagging fibres led to a new interest that continued after the war, as supplies of established materials remained insufficient and prices increased. In Cuba, the United States, and similarly affected countries, governments encouraged cultivation of kenaf, and production became increasingly mechanized.

The plant is an herbaceous annual with stalks growing to about 18 feet (5.5 metres) in height and fibre concentrated mainly in the lower portion. The leaves are composed of five lance-shaped lobes occurring mainly near the stalk top; the flowers, pale yellow with purple centres, are borne on short stalks growing from the upper angles between leaf stalks and stems.

Kenaf, although adaptable to various soils, grows best in well-drained, sandy loam and requires a warm, moist climate, tropical or subtropical, without excessively heavy rains or strong winds. Some varieties need at least 12 hours of light each day throughout the growing season. Kenaf is less demanding on the soil than jute and may be grown in rotation with other crops. Dense sowing is common, except when cultivation is for seed production. Crops are hand-harvested, yielding the best fibre at the flowering stage. Fibres are usually separated from the stalks mechanically, although in some areas retting, followed by hand stripping, is still practiced. The fibre strands, about 3 feet (0.9 metre) long, are pale in colour and lustrous, with strength comparable to that of jute. Leading producers include India, Thailand, andChina.

Kenaf, still fairly new to international trade, is used mainly for cordage, canvas, and sacking but is receiving increased consideration for other products, such as newsprint and carpet-backing yarn. Studies begun in the 1950s demonstrated that kenaf, which reaches its mature height in less than six months, is easier to process, produces a higher yield, and has stronger fibres than plants grown for wood chips.

Know it – Wind Power Energy

Wind Power

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power,windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Large wind farms consist of hundreds of individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land. Offshore farms have less visual impact, but construction and maintenance costs are considerably higher. Small onshore wind farms provide electricity to isolated locations.

Wind Farms

A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used for production of electricity. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines distributed over an extended area, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm may also be located offshore.

Almost all large wind turbines have the same design — a horizontal axis wind turbine having an upwind rotor with three blades, attached to a nacelle on top of a tall tubular tower. In a wind farm, individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (often 34.5 kV), power collection system and communications network. At a substation, this medium-voltage electric current is increased in voltage with a transformer for connection to the high voltage electric power transmission system.

Onshore windfarm

Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in large bodies of water to generate electricity. These installations can utilise the more frequent and powerful winds that are available in these locations and have less aesthetic impact on the landscape than land based projects. However, the construction and the maintenance costs are considerably higher.

Offshorewindpark Burbo Bank

Energy Storage

In general, hydroelectricity complements wind power very well. When the wind is blowing strongly, nearby hydroelectric plants can temporarily hold back their water, and when the wind drops they can rapidly increase production again giving a very even power supply. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity or other forms of grid energy storage can store energy developed by high-wind periods and release it when needed.The type of storage needed depends on the wind penetration level – low penetration requires daily storage, and high penetration requires both short and long term storage – as long as a month or more. Stored energy increases the economic value of wind energy since it can be shifted to displace higher cost generation during peak demand periods. The potential revenue from this arbitrage can offset the cost and losses of storage; the cost of storage may add 25% to the cost of any wind energy stored but it is not envisaged that this would apply to a large proportion of wind energy generated.

Enviromental Effect – Green Effect

Compared to the environmental impact of traditional energy sources, the environmental impact of wind power is relatively minor in terms of pollution. Wind power consumes no fuel, and emits no air pollution, unlike fossil fuel power sources. The energy consumed to manufacture and transport the materials used to build a wind power plant is equal to the new energy produced by the plant within a few months. While a wind farm may cover a large area of land, many land uses such as agriculture are compatible, with only small areas of turbine foundations and infrastructure made unavailable for use.

Top 10 Countries with Windpower Capacity

(India Stands 5th contributing to 6.5% of world total)

Country 2012
capacity (MW)
Windpower total capacity
(MW)
 % world total
China 12,960 75,324 26.7
United States 13,124 60,007 21.2
Germany 2,145 31,308 11.1
Spain 1,122 22,796 8.1
India 2,336 18,421 6.5
UK 1,897 8,845 3.0
Italy 1,273 8,144 2.9
France 757 7,564 2.7
Canada 935 6,200 2.2
Portugal 145 4,525 1.6
(rest of world) 6,737 39,853 14.1
World total 44,799 MW 282,587 MW 100%

Indoor Plants : improve in-house air quality

Plants help clean indoor air, which is typically far more polluted than outdoor air. Find out what common toxins these plants can filter out of the air in your home.

 

1) Areca palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens)
The best performer at removing airborne toxins, it also releases moisture into the air to regulate humidity, and is attractive to look at. It’s also effective at removing salt from soil. It is easy to take care of and very resistant to pests. Enjoys semi-sun, temperatures between 65-75 degrees.
Helps Purify: Airborne Toxins
2) Bamboo Palm
It can grow to 6 feet and is more resistant to pests than the areca palm. It is also more effective than the areca and the lady palm at removing airborne chemicals. Also an excellent humidifier. Enjoys semi-sun and 60-75 degree temperatures, and not less than 50 degrees.
Helps Purify: Airborne Chemicals
3) Rubber plant (Ficus robusta)
The rubber plant, named for the appearance of its leaves, is known for being a plant that requires little light and can tolerate lower temperatures than the previously mentioned plants. It is especially effective at removing the ubiquitous chemical formaldehyde from the air. It can grow to 8 feet. Enjoys semi-sun to semi-shade and 60-80 degree temperatures, and as low as 40 degrees for short periods.
Helps Purify: (ubiquitous chemical) Formaldehyde
4) Dwarf Date Palm (Phoenix roebelenii)
The dwarf date palm can reach a maximum height of about 6 feet and grows slowly. It thrives without much light and can survive for decades. It is very effective at removing xylene from the air, which can come from caulking, adhesives, floor coverings, wall coverings, paints and particle board. Enjoys 60-75 degrees temperatures, but not below 50 degrees.
Helps Purify: Xylene
5) Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata “Bostoniensis,” )
The Boston fern grows lush foliage but does not flower. This plant is best grown in a hanging basket or on a pedestal. It is highly effective at removing chemicals and humidifying. It should be misted regularly. Enjoys 65-75 degrees, and 50-65 at night.
Helps Purify: Chemicals and Humidifying
6) Aloe Vera
This easy-to-grow, sun-loving succulent helps clear formaldehyde and benzene, which can be a byproduct of chemical-based cleaners, paints and more. Aloe is a smart choice for a sunny kitchen window. Beyond its air-clearing abilities, the gel inside an aloe plant can help heal cuts and burns.
Helps Purify: Formaldehyde and Benzene
7) Spider plant (Chlorophytum comosum)
Even if you tend to neglect houseplants, you’ll have a hard time killing this resilient plant. With lots of rich foliage and tiny white flowers, the spider plant battles benzene, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and xylene, a solvent used in the leather, rubber and printing industries.
Helps Purify: Formaldehyde, Benzene, Carbon Monoxide and Xylene.
8) Gerber daisy (Gerbera jamesonii)
This bright, flowering plant is effective at removing trichloroethylene, which you may bring home with your dry cleaning. It’s also good for filtering out the benzene that comes with inks. Add one to your laundry room or bedroom.
Helps Purify:  Trichloroethylene and Benzene
9) Mother-in-law’s tongue (Sansevieria trifasciata ‘Laurentii’)
This plant is one of the best for filtering out formaldehyde, which is common in cleaning products, toilet paper, tissues and personal care products. Put one in your bathroom — it’ll thrive with low light and steamy humid conditions while helping filter out air pollutants.
Helps Purify: Formaldehyde
10) Golden pothos (Scindapsus aures)
Another powerful plant for tackling formaldehyde, this fast-growing vine will create a cascade of green from a hanging basket. Consider it for your garage since car exhaust is filled with formaldehyde.
Helps Purify: Formaldehyde
11) Chrysanthemum (Chrysantheium morifolium)
The colorful flowers of a mum can do a lot more than brighten a home office or living room; the blooms also help filter out benzene, which is commonly found in glue, paint, plastics and detergent. This plant loves bright light, and to encourage buds to open, you’ll need to find a spot near an open window with direct sunlight.
Helps Purify: Benzene
12) Red-edged dracaena (Dracaena marginata)
The red edges of this easy dracaena bring a pop of color, and the shrub can grow to reach your ceiling. This plant is best for removing xylene, trichloroethylene and formaldehyde, which can be introduced to indoor air through lacquers, varnishes and gasoline.
Helps Purify: Xylene, Trichloroethylene and Formaldehyde
13) Weeping Fig (Ficus benjamina)
A weeping fig (Ficus benjamina) in your living room can help filter out pollutants that typically accompany carpeting and furniture such as formaldehyde, benzene and trichloroethylene. Caring for a ficus can be tricky, but once you get the watering and light conditions right, they will last a long time.
Helps Purify: Xylene, Trichloroethylene and Formaldehyde
14) Azalea (Rhododendron simsii)
Bring this beautiful flowering shrub into your home to combat formaldehyde from sources such as plywood or foam insulation. Because azalea does best in cool areas around 60 to 65 degrees, it’s a good option for improving indoor air in your basement if you can find a bright spot.
Helps Purify: Formaldehyde
15) English ivy (Hedera helix)
A study found that the plant reduces airborne fecal-matter particles. It has also been shown to filter out formaldehyde found in some household cleaning products.
Helps Purify: Formaldehyde
16) Warneck Dracaena (Dracaena deremensis ‘Warneckii’)
Combat pollutants associated with varnishes and oils with this dracaena. The Warneckii grows inside easily, even without direct sunlight. With striped leaves forming clusters atop a thin stem, this houseplant can be striking, especially if it reaches its potential height of 12 feet.
Helps Purify: Combat Pollutants
17) Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema crispum ‘Deborah’)
This easy-to-care-for plant can help filter out a variety of air pollutants and begins to remove more toxins as time and exposure continues. Even with low light, it will produce blooms and red berries.
Helps Purify: Air Pollutants
18) Bamboo palm (Chamaedorea sefritzii)
Also known as the reed palm, this small palm thrives in shady indoor spaces and often produces flowers and small berries. It tops the list of plants best for filtering out both benzene and trichloroethylene. It’s also a good choice for placing around furniture that could be off-gassing formaldehyde.
Helps Purify:  Trichloroethylene and Benzene

19) Heart leaf philodendron (Philodendron oxycardium)

This climbing vine plant isn’t a good option if you have kids or pets — it’s toxic when eaten, but it’s a workhorse for removing all kinds of VOCs. Philodendrons are particularly good at battling formaldehyde from sources like particleboard.

Helps Purify: Formaldehyde

20) Peace lily (Spathiphyllum)

Shade and weekly watering are all the peace lily needs to survive and produce blooms. It topped NASA’s list for removing all three of most common VOCs — formaldehyde, benzene and trichloroethylene. It can also combat toluene and xylene. Helps Purify: Toluene and Xylene

Solar Power : How does solar power work?

Solar energy systems convert sunlight into electricity using technology such as photovoltaic (PV) panels, also known as solar panels.

When you install a solar energy system, your home uses electricity produced by the panels. Electricity you generate but don’t use can be fed back into the main electricity grid and your retailer will pay you for this energy.

To feed electricity into the main electricity grid, you need a new meter that can measure two way flows of electricity (into and out of the grid)—your solar installer will be able to confirm whether your existing meter is suitable or whether you need a new meter installed.

OFAI (Organic Farming Association of India) : Organic Farming in INDIA

Organic farming in India is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control. Organic farming is done using only natural and organic materials. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Increasing environmental awareness in the general population has transformed the originally supply-driven movement to a demand-driven one. Most of the western countries import coco peat blocs from India.

OFAI was set up by the Indian organic farming community, environmentalists and social activists in order to promote organic farming, lobby for its official adoption by the Indian government, assist farmers dependent on chemicals to convert to organic systems, help organic farmers with marketing their organic produce and advise its members on how to educate their children outside the urban-oriented school system so that they could be excellent stewards of the lands they inherit.

Advantages of using organic foods

  • Health: Organic foods are produced without the use of pesticides that could cause serious illnesses
  • Good for the animals: People who eat organic are happy to know the animals are not confined to a caged life, pumped full of hormones, or treated badly.
  • Environmental Safety: Harmful chemicals are not used in organic farming, and there is minimal soil, air, and water pollution being produced. Also, many organic farmers donate/support causes to help save the planet.
  • Better taste: Most people strongly believe organic foods taste better than non-organic foods. This could be because they are much fresher.

Many people are realizing the benefits of eating organic and are trying to do their part by buying all of their foods organic.

PEEPAL TREE -(a.k.a)- Ficus religiosa

The sacred Peepal Tree also known as Ficus religiosa.

The peepal is used extensively in Ayurveda. Its bark yields the tannin used in treating leather. Its leaves, when heated in ghee, are applied to cure wounds. Peepal or Ashwatha tree is of great importance in Ayurveda. It is believed to cure diseases such as gonorrhoea, haemorrhoids, diarrhoea, dysentery, gastrohelcosis, neuralgia and inflammations. Peepal tree is of religious importance also in India.

Some believe that the tree houses the Trimurti, the roots being Brahma, the trunk Vishnu and the leaves Shiva. The gods are said to hold their councils under this tree and so it is associated with spiritual understanding. The Peepal is also closely linked to Krishna. In the Bhagavad Gita, he says: “Among trees, I am the ashvattha.” Krishna is believed to have died under this tree, after which the present Kaliyuga is said to have begun.

The Peepal originates from India and is found in the most unlikely of places. In Nepal, travellers will rest under the Peepal to regain energy. In India, Hindus and Buddhists consider it a holy and sacred tree. If you do your qi gong or your yoga meditation under a Peepal, the benefits double or triple due to its strong energy.

Neem Plant (a.k.a) Azadirachta indica

Neem Plant also known as Azadirachta Indica

Azadirachta indica (नीम Neem (Hindi), Nimm in Sindhi Neem (Urdu), Nim (Bengali), Kadunimb (Marathi), Bevu (Kannada), Vembu (Tamil), Vepa (Telugu), Limda (Gujarati)) is a tree in the mahogany family Melancholia. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to India,Pakistan, and Bangladesh growing in tropical and semi-tropical regions.

Neem tree is the official tree of the Sindh Province and is very common in all cities of Sindh, there are projects underway for planting this tree in all over Sindh Province. Neem trees also grow in islands in the southern part of Iran where it is called “Cherish”  or Azad derakht  in Persian. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil.

Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 15–20 metres (49–66 ft), rarely to 35–40 metres (115–130 ft). It is evergreen, but in severe drought it may shed most or nearly all of its leaves. The branches are wide spread. The fairly dense crown is roundish or ovular and may reach the diameter of 15–20 metres (49–66 ft) in old, free-standing specimens.