Category Archives: RENEWABLE ENERGY

Solar Power in INDIA

Charanka-Solar-Park-panorama view

India is densely populated and has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. India is already a leader in wind power generation. In the solar energy sector, some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km2 area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 GW to 2,100 GW. Also India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has released the JNNSM Phase 2 Draft Policy,[1] by which the Government aims to install 10GW of Solar Power and of this 10 GW target, 4 GW would fall under the central scheme and the remaining 6 GW under various State specific schemes.

In July 2009, India unveiled a US$19 billion plan to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020. Under the plan, the use of solar-powered equipment and applications would be made compulsory in all government buildings, as well as hospitals and hotels. On 18 November 2009, it was reported that India was ready to launch its National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, with plans to generate 1,000 MW of power by 2013. From August 2011 to July 2012, India went from 2.5 MW of grid connected photovoltaics to over 1,000 MW.

According to a 2011 report by BRIDGE TO INDIA and GTM Research, India is facing a perfect storm of factors that will drive solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption at a “furious pace over the next five years and beyond”. The falling prices of PV panels, mostly from China but also from the U.S., has coincided with the growing cost of grid power in India. Government support and ample solar resources have also helped to increase solar adoption, but perhaps the biggest factor has been need. India, “as a growing economy with a surging middle class, is now facing a severe electricity deficit that often runs between 10 and 13 percent of daily need”.

 

CURRENT STATUS

With about 300 clear, sunny days in a year, India’s theoretical solar power reception, on only its land area, is about 5000 Petawatt-hours per year (PWh/yr) (i.e. 5000 trillion kWh/yr or about 600 TW). The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 1500–2000 sunshine hours per year (depending upon location), which is far more than current total energy consumption. For example, assuming the efficiency of PV modules were as low as 10%, this would still be a thousand times greater than the domestic electricity demand projected for 2015.

Solar_Resource_Map_of_India

 

INSTALLED CAPACITY

The amount of solar energy produced in India in 2007 was less than 1% of the total energy demand. The grid-interactive solar power as of December 2010 was merely 10 MW. Government-funded solar energy in India only accounted for approximately 6.4 MW-yr of power as of 2005. However, India is ranked number one in terms of solar energy production per watt installed, with an insolation of 1,700 to 1,900 kilowatt hours per kilowatt peak (kWh/KWp). 25.1 MW was added in 2010 and 468.3 MW in 2011. By the end of March 2013 the installed grid connected photovoltaics had increased to 1686.44 MW,and India expects to install an additional 10,000 MW by 2017, and a total of 20,000 MW by 2022.

Progress under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission

Sl. No.

State / UT

Capacity (MW)

1.

Andhra Pradesh

21.8

2.

Chhattisgarh

4.0

3.

Delhi

2.5

4.

Gujarat

654.8

5.

Haryana

7.8

6.

Jharkhand

4.0

7.

Karnataka

9.0

8.

Madhya Pradesh

2.0

9.

Maharashtra

20.0

10.

Odisha

13.0

11.

Punjab

9.0

12.

Rajasthan

197.5

13.

Tamil Nadu

15.0

14.

Uttar Pradesh

12.0

15.

Uttarakhand

5.0

16.

West Bengal

2.0

TOTAL

979.4

Know it – Wind Power Energy

Wind Power

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power,windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Large wind farms consist of hundreds of individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land. Offshore farms have less visual impact, but construction and maintenance costs are considerably higher. Small onshore wind farms provide electricity to isolated locations.

Wind Farms

A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used for production of electricity. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines distributed over an extended area, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm may also be located offshore.

Almost all large wind turbines have the same design — a horizontal axis wind turbine having an upwind rotor with three blades, attached to a nacelle on top of a tall tubular tower. In a wind farm, individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (often 34.5 kV), power collection system and communications network. At a substation, this medium-voltage electric current is increased in voltage with a transformer for connection to the high voltage electric power transmission system.

Onshore windfarm

Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in large bodies of water to generate electricity. These installations can utilise the more frequent and powerful winds that are available in these locations and have less aesthetic impact on the landscape than land based projects. However, the construction and the maintenance costs are considerably higher.

Offshorewindpark Burbo Bank

Energy Storage

In general, hydroelectricity complements wind power very well. When the wind is blowing strongly, nearby hydroelectric plants can temporarily hold back their water, and when the wind drops they can rapidly increase production again giving a very even power supply. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity or other forms of grid energy storage can store energy developed by high-wind periods and release it when needed.The type of storage needed depends on the wind penetration level – low penetration requires daily storage, and high penetration requires both short and long term storage – as long as a month or more. Stored energy increases the economic value of wind energy since it can be shifted to displace higher cost generation during peak demand periods. The potential revenue from this arbitrage can offset the cost and losses of storage; the cost of storage may add 25% to the cost of any wind energy stored but it is not envisaged that this would apply to a large proportion of wind energy generated.

Enviromental Effect – Green Effect

Compared to the environmental impact of traditional energy sources, the environmental impact of wind power is relatively minor in terms of pollution. Wind power consumes no fuel, and emits no air pollution, unlike fossil fuel power sources. The energy consumed to manufacture and transport the materials used to build a wind power plant is equal to the new energy produced by the plant within a few months. While a wind farm may cover a large area of land, many land uses such as agriculture are compatible, with only small areas of turbine foundations and infrastructure made unavailable for use.

Top 10 Countries with Windpower Capacity

(India Stands 5th contributing to 6.5% of world total)

Country 2012
capacity (MW)
Windpower total capacity
(MW)
 % world total
China 12,960 75,324 26.7
United States 13,124 60,007 21.2
Germany 2,145 31,308 11.1
Spain 1,122 22,796 8.1
India 2,336 18,421 6.5
UK 1,897 8,845 3.0
Italy 1,273 8,144 2.9
France 757 7,564 2.7
Canada 935 6,200 2.2
Portugal 145 4,525 1.6
(rest of world) 6,737 39,853 14.1
World total 44,799 MW 282,587 MW 100%

Solar Power : How does solar power work?

Solar energy systems convert sunlight into electricity using technology such as photovoltaic (PV) panels, also known as solar panels.

When you install a solar energy system, your home uses electricity produced by the panels. Electricity you generate but don’t use can be fed back into the main electricity grid and your retailer will pay you for this energy.

To feed electricity into the main electricity grid, you need a new meter that can measure two way flows of electricity (into and out of the grid)—your solar installer will be able to confirm whether your existing meter is suitable or whether you need a new meter installed.